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Electrical activity in the hippocampus is different when your memory is wrong. In 2023, Scientists at UPenn tested the brain waves of volunteers and asked them to memorize a list of words. The hippocampus (a key memory related brain structure) emitted distinct brain wave (EEG) patterns, depending on whether the volunteers memory was true or false. True memories were preceded by more theta waves and fewer alpha and beta waves.
I wonder whether there’d be a different pattern if the volunteers were intentionally lying…
If you’d like to learn more about brain waves, please read https://brain2mind.substack.com/p/gamma-is-the-greatest-of-brain-waves